Action Indonesia—Anoa, Banteng and Babirusa GSMPs 

The Action Indonesia collaboration to conserve anoa, banteng and babirusa involves partners from both the conservation breeding and in situ fields, to achieve a One Plan approach programme of activities.

What is a GSMP?

Global Species Management Plans (GSMPs) provide a framework for regional zoo associations to work together on a global plan for the ex situ activities for a particular species. The GSMPs are administered by the World Association for Zoos and Aquaria (WAZA) and run by committees of representatives of the regional associations participating in the programmes. 

The GSMP’s arose from growing concern about the long-term sustainability and viability of populations of wild animals held in captivity in zoos and aquaria. To be able to fulfil their roles in conservation, animals in captivity need to have populations with ranges of age classes and sexes which would be representative of a healthy wild population and have a relatively high genetic diversity like their wild counterparts. Only when cooperatively managed across regions will many of these species be able to sustain these characteristics for the foreseeable future. A GSMP involves managing a particular taxon (species or genus) with a set of goals which have been agreed globally whilst still building on and respecting those that already exist within the regional management.

Origins of GSMP’s

To read more about GSMPs and their origins please see:

Founding of the Action Indonesia Anoa, Banteng and Babirusa GSMP

Following the development of the “IUCN Regional Conservation Strategy for Wild Cattle and Buffaloes in Southeast Asia (2011-2020)”, the IUCN SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group (AWCSG), saw it as a logical next step to join forces with the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry for the production of national action plans for Anoa (Bubalus sp.) and Banteng (Bos javanicus), both of whom belong to the 25 priority taxa for Indonesia.  Given that Anoa and Babiursa share a similar distribution, threats and stakeholders, the IUCN SSC Wild Pig Specialist Group (WPSG) reached out to join forces to develop a national action plan for this wild pig species as well and from this the unlikely “marriage” between these three taxa was born. 

In 2014 the chairs of the Taxon Advisory Groups from around the world had their first joint meeting in Alphen, the Netherlands. Representatives of the Indonesian, European, and North American zoo associations met at this meeting and decided to collaborate globally with each other, with the AWCSG and WPSG groups and with the Indonesian government to develop in more detail the ex situ components of the national Strategy and Conservation Action Plans for Babirusa, Anoa and Banteng. At the end of 2014 six partner organisations formalised this intention by signing a Memorandum of Understanding: the Indonesia Zoo and Aquarium Association (PKBSI), European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC), Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group (AWCSG) and Wild Pig Specialist Group (WPSG). The agreement was witnessed by the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry. The partners in the initiative felt that GSMPs as administered by WAZA would provide a suitable framework within which to plan and implement the work ahead and decided to develop one GSMP for each taxon.

What does a GSMP do?

The GSMPs for banteng, anoa and babirusa aim to promote the collaboration between three regional zoo associations, the respective IUCN SSC Specialist Groups and the Indonesian Ministry for Environment and Forestry to ensure the long-term survival of banteng, anoa and babirusa by a combination of ex situ and in situ activities. As agreed during the workshops in January 2016, the roles of the GSMPs are to:

ROLE 1 Facilitate the maintenance of a demographically and genetically healthy global ex situ population, including the provision of breeding and transfer plans, and facilitation of transfers

ROLE 2 Support the needs and goals of the regional ex situ programmes by supporting collaboration, including initiation of required research, sharing of information and expertise, and capacity building

ROLE 3 Promote an effective interface between ex situ and in situ management that supports the conservation of the three taxa

ROLE 4 Encourage support of in situ conservation

Partners of the GSMP

The founding partners of the GSMPs are the regional zoo associations PKBSI representing the SEAZA region, EAZA for Europe, AZA for North America, the SSC and their respective IUCN SSC Specialist Groups AWCSG and WPSG, the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) as the official scientific authority of the Indonesian government. Especially the in-country GSMP partners from PKBSI, the Indonesian government and LIPI were crucial in the successful establishment and development of the GSMPs in 2016.