The fourth of the GSMP’s major roles is to support in situ conservation efforts. The GSMP in situ activities will work to achieve long-term impact, by supporting activities that run for multiple years. There will also be a focus on skills transfer to ensure that local implementers continue activities initiated through the GSMP, and that they have the understanding to adaptively manage projects as future changes occur.
The approach of GSMP partners is to share their expertise and provide some financial contributions, while not being in a position to provide funding for large field programmes. The allocation of funding support will be to areas where it could significantly help current efforts, e.g. developing systematic monitoring methods for Banteng. Where possible, expertise will be built to support the management of protected areas, for example through assessment of efficiency and effectiveness of protected area management. This will involve working with Indonesian and international NGOs and university partners.
The GSMP will prioritise in situ activities that have a link to ex situ activities. For example, if there is a strong synergy between an in situ and ex situ activity, or in situ activities that can link to ex situ activities in future. An example is research to determine threats to a population that could help in informing the best approach to potential supplementation of the population in future.
The Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry has published Strategy and Conservation Action Plans for Anoa, Banteng and Babirusa and within these there were 8 strategies or mission topics that were described and it is a number of these that the GSMP hopes to achieve and work towards with the in situ conservation efforts. Not all of these below apply to all the species but generally they do.
- Increasing control of poaching and illegal trade through improved security, law enforcement and increased awareness in society which can be achieved through community education and better training for local law enforcement and conservation staff
- Establishing conservation databases for each species and developing a Management Information System (MIS) which is transparent, accountable, participative, and collaborative with various stakeholders.
- Improving education and training for field staff/managers and communities and the competence of officers in conservation needs
- Improving cross-regional, inter-institutional/organisational and interdisciplinary cooperation and partnerships and improving their involvement whether by financial support or other methods
- Improving and emphasizing the role of the national government, provincial governments, regency/city governments and NGOs in searching for institutional support, within and outside of the country, to fund Babirusa conservation efforts.
- Increasing and maintaining Anoa, Babirusa and Banteng populations in the wild at viable levels with high genetic variation and ecological function through environmental education described in and support for protection
- Ensuring habitat is extended, as well as safeguarding the quality, safety and carrying capacity of habitat, so that viable populations can be maintained.
- Increasing the awareness of the public and stakeholders of the conservation needs of Anoa, Banteng and Babirusan and recognition of their economic value to tourism and benefits to ecosystem management, and improve the popularity for their conservation which can be done through environmental education
Currently the GSMP is supporting the provision of small grants to fund short term in situ conservation projects that typically last 6-12 months. The projects we have so far funded are:
- Multi-site conservation education outreach programme on Sulawesi,
- Led by the Alliance for Tompotika Conservation, Central Sulawesi
- Aim: Design and production of curriculum and outreach materials, followed by delivery in three Sulawesi provinces, in order to raise awareness and ultimately reduce poaching pressure
- Hairy babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) survey on Buru Island, Maluku Islands
- Indonesian team, with support of Alastair Macdonald, The University of Edinburgh
- Aim: Identification of the current population status of babirusa and other wild pigs on the island of Buru, including distribution, trends over the past 20 years and current and prospective threats. This is urgently needed because the last records were from 1990 and it is expected that there has been a decline in the population since then.
- Methods: Questionnaires and interviews with local communities on Buru island
- Conservation of the Babirusa and Anoas and their Critical Habitat, the Nantu Forest, Sulawesi
- Led by Dr Lynn Calyton and the team from YANI (Yayasan Adudu Nantu Internasional)
- Aim: Provide continued patrols, protection and enforcement of wildlife laws in the Nantu Forest Wildlife Reserve and reduce impacts of encroachment for oil palm planting and slash and burn clearance, illegal hunting and snare trapping, illegal logging and illegal gold mining
- Methods: Funding patrols by Protection Units made up of 4 YANI team members, 6 local police and 2 local community members who will have a continuous presence within the reserve and will work to clear snares, confiscate illegal logging, hunting and mining equipment and arrest those conducting illegal activities within the reserve.