Bubalus depressicornis (Lowland anoa)

Bubalus quarlesi (Mountain anoa)


IUCN status: Endangered

Threats: Illegal hunting, habitat loss

Size: body mass: 150-300 kg; height at shoulder: 0.75-100 m; head and body length: 1.22-1.88 m


Anoa are the smallest wild cattle species and are found only on the Indonesian islands of Sulawesi and Buton. Here, they live in a variety of habitats including primary and secondary moist forest, grassland, and swamp forest. Their diet of a range of plant species generally has a low mineral content, so they supplement this by feeding and drinking at mineral licks and springs. Adult anoa are generally solitary but will gather at these salt licks and at wallows, and calves will stay with their mothers until they are relatively large.


There are currently two recognised species of anoa (lowland and mountain anoa), however this taxonomy is subject to debate – some experts think that they may represent a single species, possibly split into geographically distinct populations. Mountain anoa are smaller and more densely haired than lowland anoa, giving them a ‘furry’ appearance. Both species are classified as Endangered, with the global population for each species estimated at fewer than 2,500 and no single population with more than 250 mature individuals.


Lowland anoa distribution map

Mountain anoa distribution map

More information

Lowland anoa IUCN Red List account - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3126/0

Mountain anoa IUCN Red List account - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3128/0