Water buffalo 
(Bubalus arnee)

Water Buffalo, Kaziranga National Park, India (Christy Williams)

Physical characteristics

Adult water buffalo stand 1.7–2m at the shoulder, and weigh ~900kgs.15 Females are around 20% smaller than the males. They body pelage is slaty black and they have white feet. The horns are spread horizontally and curve slightly upwards.15

Life history 

  • Longevity: Maximum reported is 25 years for a wild individual.16,19
  • Sexual maturation and gestation: The peak mating activity occurs in October–November.1 Gestation can be anything from 300 to 340 days.15,16 If mothers die, calves can be adopted by other females with calves.17 Females reach maturity at around 2–3 years of age and generally produce around five calves throughout their life.1,18