Water buffalo 
(Bubalus arnee)

Water Buffalo, Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand (WCS-Thailand Program)


  1. Hedges, S., Sagar Baral, H., Timmins, R.J., Duckworth, J. W., 2008. Bubalus arnee. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [online]. Available from: www.iucnredlist.org. [Accessed 25th July 2010].
  2. Epstein, H., 1971. Domestic Animals of China. New York: Africana Publishing Corporation.
  3. Mason, I. L., 1974. Species, types and breeds. In: Cockrill, W.R., (ed.), The Husbandry and Health of the Domestic Buffalo, pp. 1-47. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  4. Cockrill, W. R., 1984. Water buffalo. In: Mason, I. L. (ed.), Evolution of Domesticated Animals, pp. 52-63. London: Longman.
  5. Grubb, P., 2005. Artiodactyla. In: Wilson, D. E., Reeder, D. M., (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637–722. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  6. Lydekker, R., 1898. Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats of all Lands. London: Rowland Ward.
  7. Prater, S., 1971. The book of Indian animals. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society.
  8. Choudhury, A., 1994. The decline of the wild water buffalo in northeast India. Oryx, 28(1), 70–73.
  9. Wharton, C. H., 1957. An Ecological Study of the Kouprey (Novibos sauveli Urbain). Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology, Monograph 5, Manila, Philippines.
  10. Timmins, R. J., Rattanak, O., 2001. The importance of Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent areas for the conservation of tigers and other key species. WWF Indochina Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam and Phonm Penh, Cambodia.
  11. Hasan, S. M., 1980. The enigmatic buffalo. Hornbill, 1980: 26–27.
  12. Arun Singh, T., 1980. Feedback: «the enigmatic buffalo». Hornbill, 1980: 4.
  13. Clutton-Brock, J., 1999. A natural history of domesticated animals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  14. Roots, C., 2007. Domestication. U.S.A: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  15. Shrestha, N., 1997. Protected wildlife species of Nepal: an introductory handbook. IUCN.
  16. Cavendish, M., 2001. Endangered wildlife and plants of the world, volume II. U.S.A: Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
  17. Tulloch D.G., 1979. The water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, in Australia: reproductive and parent-offspring behaviour. Aust. Wild. Res, 6, 265-287.
  18. De Silva M., Dissanayake S., Santiapillai C., 1994. Aspects of the population dynamics of the wild Asiatic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Rahuna National Park, Sri Lanka. J. South Asian nat. Hist, 1, 65-76.
  19. Nowak, R. M., 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  20. Tordoff, A. W., Timmins, R. J., Maxwell, A., Huy Keavuth, Lic Vuthy., Khou Eang Hourt (eds). 2005. Biological assessment of the Lower Mekong Dry Forests Ecoregion. pp. 192 pp.. WWF Greater Mekong Programme., Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  21. Odden, M., Wegge, P., Storaas, T., 2005. Hog deer Axis porcinus need threatened tallgrass floodplains: a study of habitat selection in lowland Nepal. Animal Conservation, 8, 99–104.